School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia

  • Qualification


  • Professor

    Discipline of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

  • Room

    J03 Room 138/140

  • Contact

    +604-6577888 Ext. 2208

  • Email

Author ID

Gam Lay Harn, Prof Dr

I joined the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia since October 2001 as a lecturer, thereafter I was promoted to position of senior lecturer in 2007, associate professor in 2009 and professor in 2011.  My research field is in proteomic study. Throughout my years of academic life in USM, I had identified useful urinary biomarker for diagnosis of kidney stone disease, protein biomarkers for differentiation of the source of gelatin either as halal or non-halal. I had obtained patents for both of these inventions.  Recently in 2021, I filed another patent for urinary biomarker that is useful for diagnosis of kratom addiction.  My other research interests are on cancer research and plant proteomics.  In cancer research, I have published a number of papers to describe the changes of protein profiling when a cell turned cancerous.  While in plant proteomics, I have identified a few proteins with existing commercial values and also identified proteins with anti-cancer properties, all my findings were published in peer reviewed publications.  I was appointed as programme chairperson of Pharmaceutical Chemistry Discipline from 2010-2012. Later in 2017, I was appointed as deputy director of Doping Control Centre and reappointed as program chair of Pharmaceutical Chemistry.  I provided test on halal gelatin, which have been a source of income for the centre.  I enjoy teaching and also doing research, therefore I hope I can continue to contribute positively to USM.  

  • Research Interest

    1. Identification of protein biomarkers in various diseases

    Ongoing Research

    1. Kratom addiction mechanism and diagnostic marker
    1. Protein Analysis
    1. Basheer, M., Hassan, Z., Gam, L.H. (2023). Upregulation of Brain's Calcium Binding Proteins in Mitragynine Dependence: A Potential Cellular Mechanism to Addiction. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 20(1), 102-113.

    2. Jasim K.R., Singh D. and Gam LH (2022) Developement and validation of ELISA for screening of kratom habitual users using urinary AZ112 biomarker. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry. Http://

    3. RANA KHUDHAIR JASIM,* , ZURINA BINTI HASSAN, DARSHAN SINGH * , EDWARD BOYER, GAM LAY HARN* 2021, Characterization of urinary protein profile in regular kratom (Mitragyna speciosa korth.) users in Malaysia, Journal of Addictive Diseases,, 1-12

    4. SIM XUAN YI* , BAHARUDIN IBRAHIM, GAM LAY HARN* 2021, Urinary metabolites of type 2 diabetes rats fed with palm oil-enriched high fat diet, Heliyon, 7:, e08075

    5. Yan-Fen Lee, Xuan-Yi Sim, Ying-Hui The, Mohd Nazri Ismail, Peter Greimel, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Baharudin Ibrahim and Lay-Harn Gam, The effects of high‐fat diet and metformin on urinary metabolites in diabetes and prediabetes rat models, Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, 68/5:, (Impact Factor : 2.431) DOI: 10.1002/bab.2021

    1. FAR411 Advanced Pharmaceutical Analysis
    2. FAR313 Pharmaceutical Analysis
    3. FAR113 Organic Chemistry
    1. Halal gelatin analysis
    1. Biomarker for kidney stone disease (patent granted 2013)
    2. Analysis method to differentiate bovine and porcine gelatin source in capsule (patent granted 2013)
    3. Diagnostic kit for kratom addiction (filled in 2021)
    1. ITEX 2011, Gold Medal and Taiwan special award
    2. KIWIE 2011, Seoul Korea, Silver Medal
    3. National Intelectual Property Award 2010
    4. Excellence Service Award 2009 by Universiti Sains Malaysia.
    5. MTE 2010, Gold Medal.
    6. PECIPTA 2009, Bronze Medal
dr gam3
Gam Lay Harn, Prof. Dr
BSc., Msc. (Malaya)
J02 Room 138
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Tel : 604-6577888 Ext. 2208
Email :



Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Courses taught

  • FAR 241/4 Antimicrobial Therapy
  • FAR311/3 Pharmaceutical Analysis
  • FAR 113/3 Organic Chemistry
  • FAR411/2

Research Interest

More than seven years ago, the pharmaceutical sector began to invest heavily in genomics to increase the supply of validated drug targets.  Upon the completion of the human genome sequence, drug discovery pipeline with more than 75,000 sequences of potential targets has been identified.  However, valid drug targets were unable to examine by the gene sequence information as it reveals little about protein function or disease relevance. Proteomics seeks to provide functional information for all proteins, it refers to any protein-based approach that provides new information about proteins on a genome wide scale.   In order to determine a protein relevance to a particular disease, it is importance to catalog where, when and to what extent the protein is expressed.  Although the level of mRNA can be monitor, mRNA and protein levels do not always correlate in the cell and many regulatory processes occur after transcription.  Thus, a direct measure of relative protein abundance is more desirable.

We are currently conducting four proteomics research :

i)                      Identification of protein biomarker for colorectal cancer amongst the Malaysia patients

ii)                    Identification of protein biomarker for breast cancer amongst the Malaysian female patients

iii)                   Development of high throughput screening method for kidney stone disease.

iv)                  Differential protein expression between Atypical mycobacteria and clinical M. tuberculosis strains.


Biotechnology (Proteomics)


  • Halal gelatin test
  • Protein Analysis Workshops
  • Mass Spectrometry Workshops

Selected Publication

Seng Liang, Manjit Singh, Lay-Harn Gam (in press) The Differential Expression of Aqueous Soluble Proteins in Breast Normal and Cancerous Tissues in Relation to Ethnicity of the Patients; Chinese, Malay and Indian. Disease Markers.

Lay-Chin Yeoh, Chee-Keat Loh, Boon-Hui Gooi , Manjit Singh  and Lay-Harn Gam (in press), Abundant hydrophobic proteins in colorectal cancer in relation to cancer’s stages, grades and patients’ gender. World J. Gastroenterol.

Lau WH, Leong WS, Zhari I, Gam LH (in press)  SDS-PAGE Quantitative Assay for Screening of Kidney Stone Disease.  Biological Procedure Online.

Che Nin Man , Ahmed Ibrahim Fathelrahman, Gam Lay Harn, Razak Lajis, Ahmad Shalihin Mohd Samin, Maizurah Omar, Rahmat Awang and Nurulain Abdullah Bayanuddin (2009) Correlation between urinary nicotine, cotinine and self-reported smoking status among educated young adults. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology  28:92-96

Lau WH, Leong WS, Zhari I, Gam LH (2009) Proteomics and Detection of Uromodulin in First-time Renal Calculi Patients and Recurrent Renal Calculi Patients.  Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 159:221-232

Che Nin Man, Syazwani Ismail, Gam Lay Harn, Razak Lajis and Rahmat Awang (2009). Determination of Hair Nicotine by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.  Journal of Chromatograpy B, 877:339-342

Izani O, Majid MIA, Manjit S, Gooi, Subatra S, Liang S. Gam LH (2009), Proteomics of Grade Three Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma In Malaysian Chinese Breast Cancer Patients.  Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry.       (

Wai-Hoe Lau, Wing-Seng Leong, Zhari Ismail, Lay-Harn Gam (2008).  Qualification and application of an ELISA for the determination of THP in human urine and its use for screening of kidney stone disease.  International Journal of Biological Sciences, 4:215-222. or online at

Izani O, Majid MIA, Manjit S, Man CN, Gam LH (2008) Isolation, identification and quantification of differentially expressed proteins from cancerous and normal breast tissues. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry.  May 45: 299-306

Leow CH, Manjit S, Gooi BH, Che Min M, Gam LH (2008)  Comparison of protein profiles of colorectal cancer tissues extracted using three extraction buffers.  Journal Biosceince.  19(1), 1-14.

Gam LH, Leow CH, Man CN, Gooi BH, Manjit S.  (2006)  Analysis of differentially expressed proteins in cancerous and normal colonic tissues.  World J. Gastroenterol. 12(31): 4973-4983.

Man CN, Gam LH, Ismail S, Lajis R, Awang R.  (2006)  Simple, rapid and sensitive assay method for simultaneous quantification of unrinary nicotine and cotinine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  Journal of Chromatography B. 844 (2) 322-327.

Saravanan D., Jamaludin A.S., Razak H.M., Valiappan R., Ahmad N.A., Gam LH, Ismail Z.  (2006)  The classification of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. According to location by infracred spectroscopy.  Vibrational Spectroscopy. 41:68-72.

Saravanan D, Hossain M.A., Zhari S., Gam LH, Ismail Z. (2006)  The use of principal component analysis and self-organizing map to monitor inhibition of Calcium oxalate crystal growth by Orthosiphone stamineus extract.  Chemometrics and Inteligent Laboratory System. 81: 21-28.

Gam LH and Latiff A. (2006) Tandem mass spectrometic analysis of glycopeptides derived from the tryptic digestion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).  Malaysian Journal of Science.  25(2): 87-95.

Gam LH, Leow CY & Baie S. (2006)  Proteomic analysis of snakehead fish (Channa striata) muscle tissue. Malaysia Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 14: 25-32

Gam LH, Aishah L. (2005)  SDS-PAGE Electrophoretic Property of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and its b-subunit.  International Journal of Biological Sciences. 1:103-109. and online at

Gam LH, Leow CY & Baie S. (2005)  Amino acid composition of snakehead fish (Channa striatus) of various sizes obtained at different times of the year.  Malaysian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(2): 19-30.

Gam LH & Aishah L (2005) Identification and Confirmatory Method for Human Chorionic Gonadetropin using HPLC/MS/MS Analysis. Malaysian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 12: 25-30

Gam LH, Tham SK and Aishah L.  (2003), Immunoaffinity extraction and tandem mass spectrometric analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin in doping analysis.  Journal of Chromatrography B, 79: 187-196.

Gam LH and Aishah L.  (2002), Identification and confirmation of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin using in-gel digestion and HPLC/MS/MS analysis.  Journal Bioscience, 13 (1):27-34

Gam LH and Aishah L.  (2002), High throughput screening for urinary human chorionic gonadotropin using ELISA method. Journal Bioscience  13(2): 95-101.

Verdugo-Rodriguez, A, Gam, LH, Devi S, Koh, CL, Puthucheary, SD, Calva, E and Pang, T. (1993), Detection of antibodies against Salmonella typhi Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) preparation in typhoid fever patients. Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology 11: 45-52.

Current Research

  • Identification of Biomarkers in diseases
  • Protein Profiling of Medicinal Plants

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
11800 Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

Tel : +604-653 2211  |  Fax: +604-657 0017