School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia

Leow Chiuan Yee

vickneswaran1Leow Chiuan Yee, Dr
Senior Lecturer
B.App. Sc. (Hons)(USM), MSc. (USM), PhD (University of Queensland)
Post. Grad. Cert. in Bioinformatics (Bioinformatics Institute of India)
J06 Room 113, 
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Tel : 604-6577888 Ext. 
Email :
Google Scholar ID:




Courses taught


Research Interest

  • Vaccine development
  • Antibody technology
  • Infectious diseases
  • Chronic diseases
  • Systems immunology / Immunobiology
  • Immunoinformatics
  • Immunopharmacology
  • Immunotherapeutics
  • Immunodiagnostics


  • Antigen discovery
  • Molecular immunology
  • Gene manipulation
  • Genetic engineering
  • Protein engineering and recombinant protein production
  • Synthetic biology
  • Host-pathogen immunity
  • Immunopeptidomics
  • Computational vaccinology
  • Animal model of infection/immunization


  • UBE Corporate Solutions
  • Stadpharm Sdn. Bhd.

Selected Publication

  1. Lim, H.T., Kok, B.H., Lim, C.P., Majeed, A.B.A., Leow, C.Y., and Leow, C. H. (2022). Single-domain antibodies derived from ancient animals as broadly neutralizing agents for SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses. Biomedical Engineering Advances. 100054.
  2. de Oliveira Campos, D M., da Silva, M.K., Duarte Barbosa, E., Leow, C.Y., Laino Fulco, U. and Nobre Oliveira, J.I. (2022). Exploiting reverse vaccinology approach for the design of a multiepitope subunit vaccine against the major SARS-CoV-2 variants. Computational Biology and Chemistry. 107754.
  3. Mohammad Shabani, N. R., Hisyam Ismail, C. M. K., Anthony, A. A., Leow, C. H., Chuah, C., Mohd Nor, N., He, Y., Banga Singh, K.K., Leow, C.Y. (2022). Mass spectrometry-based immunopeptidomics and computational vaccinology strategies for the identification of Shigella universal immunogenic candidates. Computers in Biology and Medicine. 148, 105900.
  4. Mahadi, N., Leow, C.Y., Banga Singh, K.K. (2022). Usefulness of the Outer Membrane Proteins of Shigella sonnei in Developing an Antibody-based Immunoassay for the Diagnosis of Shigellosis. Tropical Biomedicine. 39 (2), 252-256.
  5. Hisyam Ismail, C. M. K., Mohammad Shabani, N. R., Chuah, C., Hassan, Z., Abdul Majeed, A.B., Leow, C.H., and Leow, C.Y. (2022). Shigella iron-binding proteins: An insight into molecular physiology, pathogenesis, and potential target vaccine development. Vaccine. (In press).
  6. Lim, C. P., Kok, B. H., Lim, H. T., Chuah, C., Abdul Rahman, B., Abdul Majeed, A. B., Wykes, M., Leow, C.H., and Leow, C.Y. (2022). Recent Trends in Next Generation Immunoinformatics Harnessed for Universal Coronavirus Vaccine Design. Pathogens and Global Health. (In press).
  7. Mohd Asri NA, Ahmad S, Mohamud R, Mohd Hanafi N, Mohd Zaidi NF, Irekeola AA, Shueb RH, Leow, C.Y., Mohd Noor N, Mustafa FH, Yean CY, Yusof NY (2021). Global Prevalence of Nosocomial Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Antibiotics (Basel). 10 (12): 1508.
  8. Muhamad, M, Choo, C.Y. and Leow , C.Y. (2021). Cytotoxic Phytochemicals from Myrsinaceae Family and their Modes of Action: A Review. Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature. 11(4): 298-324.
  9. Chong, H.Y., Leow, C.Y., Leow, C. H. (2021). Generation of soluble, disulfide-rich JEV NS1 protein recognizable by anti-NS1 antibodies through a simplified, in vitro refolding approach. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 185: 485-493.
  10. Mohammad Shabani, N.R., Mokhtar, M, Leow, C.H., Lean, Q.Y., Chuah, C, Banga Singh, K.K. and Leow, C.Y. (2020). Differential expression of cytokine genes in THP-1-derived macrophages infected with mild and virulence strains of Shigella flexneri Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 85: 104835
  11. Leow, C.H., Abdul Majeed, A.B., Cheong, W.S., and Leow, C.Y. (2020). Diagnostic and therapeutic potential of shark single domain antibody for infectious diseases. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 147: 369–375.
  12. Leow, C.Y., Kazi, A., Hisyam Ismail, C.M.K., Chuah, C., Lim, B.H., Leow, C.H. and Banga Singh, K.K. (2020). Reverse vaccinology approach for the identification and characterization of outer membrane proteins of Shigella flexneri as potential cellular- and antibody-dependent vaccine candidates. Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research. 9(1): 15-25.
  13. Kazi, A., Hisyam Ismail, C.M.K., Anthony, A. A., Chuah, C., Lim, B.H., Leow, C.H., Banga Singh, K.K. and Leow, C.Y., (2020). Designing and evaluation of a cellular- and antibody-based chimeric recombinant protein encoding Shigella outer membrane antigens: an in silico. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 80:104176.
  14. Leow, C.Y., Willis, C., Chuah, C., Leow, C.H., Hofmann, A., and Jones, M. (2020). Immunogenicity, antibody responses and vaccine efficacy of recombinant annexin B30 against Schistosoma mansoni. Parasite Immunology. 42(3): e12693 
  15. Leow C.Y., Willis C., Leow C.H., Hofmann A., Jones M. (2019). Molecular characterization of Schistosoma mansoni tegument annexins and comparative analysis of antibody responses following parasite infection. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. (In press)
  16. Chong H.Y., Leow C.Y., Abdul Majeed, A.B. and Leow C.H. (2019). Flavivirus Infection - A Review of Immunopathogenesis, Immunological Response, and Immunodiagnosis. Virus Research. (In press)
  17. Leow, C.H., Fischer, K., Leow, C.Y., Braet, K., Cheng, Q. and McCarthy, J. (2019). Cytoplasmic and periplasmic expression of recombinant shark VNAR antibody in Escherichia coli. Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 49, (4): 315-327.
  18. Chuah, C., Gobert, G.N. Latif, B., Heo, C.C., and Leow, C.Y. Schistosomiasis in Malaysia: A Review. (2019). Acta Tropica. 190: 137-143.
  19. Leow, C.H., Fischer, K., Leow, C.Y., Braet, K., Cheng, Q. and McCarthy, J. (2018). Isolation and characterization of malaria PfHRP2 specific VNAR antibody fragments from immunized shark phage display library. Malaria Journal. 17(1): 383.
  20. Lee, W., Ali, S., Leow, C.Y., Tan, S.C., and Leow, C.H. (2018). Isolation and characterization of a novel anti-salbutamol chicken scFv for human doping urinalysis. Analytical Biochemistry. 555: 81.
  21. Kazi, A., Leow, C.H., Chuah, C., Abdul Majeed, A.B., Lim, B.H. and Leow, C.Y. (2018). Current progress of immunoinformatics approach harnessed for cellular- and antibody-dependent vaccine design. Pathogens and Global Health. 112(3): 123.
  22. Kho, H.P., Leow, C.Y., Shueb, R.H., Leow, C.H., Lim, B.H., and Chuah, C. (2017). Modulation of oxidative stress in protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis: A Review. Tropical Biomedicine. 35(1): 41.
  23. Leow, C.H., Fischer, K., Leow, C.Y. Cheng, Q., Chuah, C. and McCarthy, J. (2017). Single domain antibodies as new biomarker detectors. Diagnostics. 7(4): E52.
  24. Kamarulzaman, N.S., Dewadas, H.D., Leow, C.Y., Yaacob, N.S. and Mokhtar, N.F. (2017). The role of REST and HDAC2 in epigenetic dysregulation of Nav1.5 and nNav1.5 expression in breast cancer. Cancer Cell International. 17: 74.
  25. Karunarathne, D.S., Horne-Debets, J.M., Faleiro, R., Leow, C.Y., et. al., (2016). Programmed death-1 ligand 2 (PD-L2) is crucial for establishing enduring CD4+ Th1 immunity against malarial infections. Immunity. 45(2): 333.
  26. Leow, C.Y., Willis, C., Hofmann, A., and Jones, M.K. (2015). Structure-function analysis of apical membrane-linked molecules for treatment and control of schistosome parasites of humans: insights from studies into annexins. British Journal of Pharmacology. 172: 1653. 
  27. Leow, C.Y., Willis, C., et. al. (2014). Crystal structure and immunological properties of the first annexin from Schistosoma mansoni - Insights into the structural integrity of the schistosomal tegument. FEBS Journal. 281(4): 1209.
  28. Wykes, M.N., Horne-Debets, J.M., Leow, C.Y. and Karunarathne, D. (2014). Malaria drives T cells to exhaustion. Microbiol. 5:249.
  29. Cantacessi, C., Seddon, J.M., Miller, T.L., Leow, C.Y., et. al., (2013). A genome-wide analysis of annexins from parasitic organisms and their vectors. Scientific Reports. 3: 2893.
  30. Hofmann, A., Osman, A., Leow, C.Y., Driguez, P., McManus, D.P., and Jones, MK. (2010). Parasite annexins - new molecules with potential for drug and vaccine development. BioEssays. 32: 967.
  31. Gam, LH., Leow, C.Y., and Baie, Saringat. (2006). Proteomic analysis of snakehead fish (Channa striata) muscle tissue. Malaysian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 14: 25.
  32. Gam, LH., Leow, C.Y., and Baie, Saringat. (2005). Amino acid composition of snakehead fish (Channa striatus) of various sizes obtained at different times of the year. Malaysian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(2): 19.

Book Chapter:

  1. Leow, C.Y., Chuah, C., Abdul Majeed, A.B., Mohd Nor, N. and Leow, C.H. (2022). Application of Reverse Vaccinology and Immunoinformatic Strategies for the Identification of Vaccine Candidates against Shigella flexneri. Bacterial Vaccines, 17-35.

Current Research:

  1. Understanding the host-pathogen immunological interaction of Malaysian clinical isolates Acinetobacter baumannii infection for the development of next-generation Acinetobacter immunotherapy.
  2. Elucidation of immunotherapeutics role of DC-CIK using in vitro setting.
  3. Molecular identification of surface-exposed proteins from Shigella flexneri as vaccine target molecules.
  4. Characterization of antigenic molecules to improve rapid diagnosis in Shigella flexneri 2a infection.
  5. Exploring the immunomodulation roles of the human macrophages mediated by Shigella.
  6. Characterization of adjuvant effects of Pleurotus polysacchariddes on immunomodulatory activities.

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School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
11800 Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

Tel : +604-653 2211  |  Fax: +604-657 0017